Vector-Receiver Load Pull Measurements

Measurement Overview

Vector-receiver load pull is a modern and efficient methodology for load pull measurements. Low-loss couplers are placed between the tuners and device-under-test and are connected to a vector receiver such as a VNA. Doing so allows the a- and b-waves to be measured at the DUT reference plane in real-time, presenting vector information not normally made available. Vector-receiver load pull allows the direct measurement of actual impedances presented to the DUT without any assumptions of pre-characterized tuner positioning or losses. The delivered input power is derived from the a- and b-waves with incredible accuracy, which results in properly- defined power added efficiency. Output powers at each frequency, fundamental and multiple harmonics, are made available, as are multi-tone carrier and intermodulation powers. Time-domain NVNA measurements are easily implemented using appropriate hardware.

Vector-receiver load pull

Source Pull Converter

Because the a- and b-waves of the DUT are measured at the DUT reference plane, it is possible to measure the large signal input impedance of the device. With this information and through a patented technique, it is possible to simulate the effect of matching the source of the device without having ever varied the source impedance. This "virtual source matching" is highly reliable at even extremely mismatched conditions, and allows for simulated source contours to be drawn. Trade-offs between maximum gain, efficiency and other parameters can be viewed in real-time without multiple source pull load pull iterations.

Source Pull Converter

Tour IVCAD Software Suite

IVCAD advanced measurement and modeling software, offered by Maury Microwave and AMCAD Engineering supports multiple load pull techniques including traditional load pull using external instrumentation, VNA-based load pull, active load pull and hybrid load pull. It performs DC-IV and pulsed-IV measurements and incorporates device modeling tools. Its modern visualization capabilities give users a greater ability to view, plot and graph measurement data in an intuitive manner.

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Application Notes and Data Sheets


MT930 Series IVCAD Advanced Measurement and Modeling Software


Vector-Receiver Load Pull Measurement


Magic Source Pull (aka Source Pull Converter, Virtual Source Pull)


Understanding the Relevance of Harmonic Impedance Matching in Amplifier Design


Integrated, Turnkey Modeling & Measurement Systems

Hybrid Load Pull

Agilent/Maury/AMCAD Webinar on Active and Hybrid-Active Load Pull Using the PNA-X

Maury Application Notes Library

Maury Software and System Application Notes.