Behavioral Model Extraction

X-Parameters, Multi-Harmonic Volterra (MHV) and Enhanced PHD (EPHD)


Device characterization is required for power amplifier design, and the ideal form of the device data is a large signal model. With a model, the performance can be analyzed for varying drive and impedance conditions, so complex or multi-stage circuits can be designed. A method of formulating a large signal model is to use a measurement-based behavioral approach, popularized by Keysight Technologies' X-Parameter model and AMCAD's MHV and EPHD models.

X-Parameters, Multi-Harmonic Volterra (MHV) and Enhanced PHD (EPHD)

X-Parameters are the result of poly-harmonic distortion methodology (harmonic superposition) which uses harmonic extraction tones to quantify the harmonic nonlinearities of a DUT.

The MHV modeling technique is based on harmonic superposition combined with dynamic Volterra theory resulting in a model that can handle both low frequency and high frequency memory effects. The strength of MHV modeling is that it enables accurate and reliable simulations in commercial RF circuit or system simulators, even when using complex modulated wideband signals. Thanks to this accuracy, the most important figures of merit of RF systems can be analyzed safely (e.g., EVM, ACPR, IM3,etc.).

Enhanced PHD (EPHD) is ideal for behavioral modeling of unmatched transistor in which extrapolation of loading conditions may be required beyond those used in the modeling extraction process.

X-Parameters, Multi-Harmonic Volterra (MHV) and Enhanced PHD (EPHD)

Tour IVCAD Software Suite

IVCAD advanced measurement and modeling software, offered by Maury Microwave and AMCAD Engineering supports multiple load pull techniques including traditional load pull using external instrumentation, VNA-based load pull, active load pull and hybrid load pull. It performs DC-IV and pulsed-IV measurements and incorporates device modeling tools. Its modern visualization capabilities give users a greater ability to view, plot and graph measurement data in an intuitive manner.

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Application Notes and Data Sheets


Multiharmonic Volterra (MHV) Model Dedicated to the Design of Wideband and Highly Efficient GaN Power Amplifiers 5A-061


High Efficiency Doherty Power Amplifier Design using Enhanced Poly-Harmonic Distortion (EPHD) Model 5A-065


Behavioral Power Amplifier Model (MHV) considering Memory Effects dedicated to radar system simulation 5A-066


A multi-harmonic model (MHV) taking into account coupling effects of long- and short-term memory in SSPAs 5A-067


Integrated, Turnkey Modeling & Measurement Systems 5A-068