Download application notes relating to Maury products and Subjects of Interest
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Listed by Publication Date - Most Recent Dates First
Improving Calibration Accuracy and Speed with Characterized Calibration Standards
AUTHORS: P. Narang and T. Buber, Maury Microwave Corp PUBLICATION HISTORY: May 2019
ABSTRACT:S parameter error correction is the fundamental building block of the RF & microwave device characterization world. The accuracy of several advanced measurements depend on the accuracy of S parameter characterization. Therefore it has been one of the most extensively researched topics since the introduction of network analyzers. Error correction techniques can be accomplished using several calibration methods. The most commonly known methods are SOLT and TRL calibrations. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods have been covered in many documents since the 80's that explain the calibration theory. While it may have been generally accepted all along, the need for faster and accurate calibrations have always been driven by operational efficiency requirements within organizations. Hence the advent of Electronic calibration modules. This application note explains the lesser known characterized SOLT calibration which drives the means to meet the objective of faster, accurate and wide-band calibrations.
Overcoming the Challenges of On-Wafer Load Pull Measurements at Millimeter-Wave Frequencies for 5G Applications
AUTHORS: R. Hilton and S.Dudkiewicz, Maury Microwave Corp PUBLICATION HISTORY: MICROWAVE JOURNAL - JUNE 2018
ABSTRACT:This paper reviews the challenges of on-wafer load pull measurements at 5G mmW bands, specifically how high insertion losses can reduce the effectiveness of load pull and how to overcome these losses through the novel concept of hybrid-active load pull.
VNA Based Load Pull Harmonic Measurement De-embedding
Dedicated to Waveform Engineering
AUTHORS: C. Charbonniaud, T.Gasseling, AMCAD Engineering
ABSTRACT:This paper presents a simple methodology to
observe the RF waveforms at the drain source current
reference plane of the transistor, without using a complete
nonlinear model. The aim is to allow Power Amplifier designers
starting their work using VNA based harmonic and time
domain load pull measurements, and S parameter
measurements. The later measurements will be used to extract
a linear model first. Then the parameters of the linear model
will be used to deembed the load pull measurements directly at
the voltage controlled current source plane, in order to enable
waveform engineering. Because of the well know theoretic
conditions that enable optimum efficiency, this methodology
can also be used to avoid time consuming multi-harmonic load
pull measurements. Harmonic impedances can be defined
accordingly to the knowledge of the operating class addressed,
while load pull optimization can be addressed to refine the
fundamental matching only.
Integrated, Turnkey Modeling & Measurement Systems
AUTHOR: Steve Dudkiewicz, Maury Microwave Corp PUBLICATION HISTORY: MICROWAVE JOURNAL - MARCH 2016
ABSTRACT:As companies become more vertically integrated, they take on the greater responsibilities of accurate and robust device
modeling, and associated measurements, across multiple product levels (die-level, package-level, IC-level…). With time-to-
market as a common organizational goal, the need for a highly-efficient turnkey component- to circuit- to system-level
measurement and modeling device characterization solution has never been more critical. To address this growing need,
Maury Microwave and AMCAD Engineering have partnered to release a turnkey design flow which includes the
instrumentation and software necessary to take measurements, and to extract, validate and refine compact and behavioral
models, all from within a single intuitive software platform, IVCAD.
A multi-harmonic model (MHV) taking into account coupling effects of long- and short-term memory in SSPAs
AUTHORS: C.Maziere, E.Gatard, AMCAD Engineering
ABSTRACT:This paper presents a new macro modeling methodology for solid-state power amplifiers (SSPAs) and packaged transistors
used in communication systems. The model topology is based on the principle of harmonic superposition recently introduced
by Agilent Technologies’ X-parametersTM combined with dynamic Volterra theory. The resulting multi-harmonic bilateral
model takes into account the coupling effects of both short- and long-term memory in SSPAs. In this work, the behavioral
model was developed from time-domain load pull and used to simulate the amplifier’s response to a 16-QAM signal with
specific regards to ACPR and IM3.
ABSTRACT:In radar systems, where pulsed RF signals are used, one of the main concern is the spurious emission. Such spurious are emissions of frequencies outside the bandwidth of interest. The spurious level must be kept under a Aaaaa level to be compliant with the specifications. In order to check all these specifications, system level simulation can be used, but accuracy and reliability of the simulation results will depend on the circuit model reliability, especially for the Power Amplifier (PA) which is a critical element. Such model must take into account the different memory effects. This paper proposes a complete and practical methodology to extract a Behavioral PA model dedicated to radar applications. A specific attention is paid on the coupling effects between short and long term memory dynamics.
ABSTRACT:This application note presents new identification methodologies dedicated to packaged transistor behavioral modeling. Using the background of the Poly-Harmonic Distortion (PHD) model formalism, the extension of the model kernels description up to the third order makes the behavioral model more robust and accurate for a wide range of impedance loading conditions, which is a primordial when designing a High Power Added Efficiency Doherty Amplifier, where a load impedance variation can be observed as a function of the power level. In this paper, a model of a 15 W GaN Packaged Transistor has been extracted from Load Pull measurements for Class AB and Class C conditions. This new Enhanced PHD model (EPHD) and the original PHD model are benchmarked against Load Pull measurements in order to check the new formulation. An advanced validation at the circuit level was done in order to verify the ability of the EPHD model to predict the overall Doherty Amplifier performances.
AUTHOR: Steve Dudkiewicz, Gary Simpson and Giampiero Esposito, Maury Microwave Corp, Mauro Marchetti, Anteverta-mw and Marc Vanden Bossche, NMDG PUBLICATION HISTORY: MICROWAVE JOURNAL - AUGUST 2015
ABSTRACT:When the transistor is in deep compression
and its output is composed of multiple harmonics,
the device behavior cannot be described
correctly by S-parameters, which are frequency
domain quantities. It is much more natural
to analyze the behavior of the device under test
(DUT) in terms of time domain RF voltage
and current waveforms. Clear evidence of this
is provided by the theoretical description of the
different modes of operation of power amplifiers,
which is completely done in time domain.
In this case, a nonlinear vector network analyzer
(NVNA) can be used to measure the incident
and reflected a- and b-waves at the transistor
input and output, in both amplitude and
phase. The data can then reconstruct the time domain RF voltage and current waveforms
and RF load lines as well as all
the conventional performance parameters
of the device, such as input and
output power, gain and efficiency.2
Several commercial solutions exist
to measure nonlinear transistor performance.
This article will compare
Maury Microwave’s MT4463 large
signal network analyzer (LSNA) and
the MT2000 mixed-signal active loadpull
system (MSALP). The MT4463
LSNA was offered in conjunction with
Agilent’s Network Measurement and
Description Group between 2003 and
2008. The MT2000 is currently offered
as an integrated non-50 Ω measurement
system, in conjunction with
Selecting the Node: Understanding and overcoming pole-zero quasi-cancellations
AUTHORS: AMCAD Engineering
ABSTRACT:This application note provides the fundamentals to understand the origin of pole-zero quasi-cancellations and the tips to get a reliable analysis that unambiguously decides on the stability/instability of the circuit in the presence of quasi-cancellations.
A Beginner's Guide To All Things Load Pull / Impedance Tuning 101
AUTHORS: Gary Simpson, Maury Microwave Corporation PUBLICATION HISTORY: This reprint is based on an article that originally appeared in Microwaves&RF magazine – digital edition of 1 December,
ABSTRACT:Load pull is an essential tool in the design, test, model validation process of amplifier development and is also used
in test validation of various system modules. There are different methods to perform load pull and based on customer requirement,
one of these methods is presented. This article is intended to introduce the basics of load pull and tools needed to accomplish this
ABSTRACT:This paper presents a complete validation of the new
behavioral model called the multiharmonic Volterra (MHV)model
for designing wideband and highly efficient power amplifiers with
packaged transistors in computer-aided design (CAD) software.
The proposed model topology is based on the principle of the
harmonic superposition introduced by the Agilent X-parameters,
which is combined with the dynamic Volterra theory to give an
MHV model that can handle short-term memory effects. The
MHV models of 10- and 100-W packaged GaN transistors have
been extracted from time-domain load–pull measurements under
continuous wave and pulsed modes, respectively. Both MHV
models have been implemented into CAD software to design 10-
and 85-W power amplifiers in - and -bands. Finally, the rst
power amplifier exhibited mean measured values of 10-W output
power and 65% power-added efficiency over 36% bandwidth
centered at 2.2 GHz, while the second one exhibited 85-W output
power and 65% drain efficiency over 50% bandwidth centered at
Understanding the Relevance of Harmonic Impedance Matching in Amplifier Design
AUTHOR: Steve Dudkiewicz, Marc Schulze Tenberge and Giampiero Esposito
Maury Microwave Corp and Travis Barbieri, Freescale Semiconductor PUBLICATION HISTORY: MICROWAVE JOURNAL - APRIL 2015
ABSTRACT:Today’s modern commercial and military communication systems are demanding better performance with regards to power, efficiency, linearity and operating bandwidth. As such, extra considerations must be placed on designing the internal components of the systems, including the low-noise and power amplifiers, to maximize performance.
In order to reach higher efficiencies, significant research has been performed on designing high efficiency amplifiers by matching one or more harmonic impedances. An equally large effort has gone into designing commercial test systems which aid in the systematic identification of ideal matching impedances at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies, referred to as harmonic load-pull, in order to maximize performance.
Before venturing into a design project, it is important to ask several questions: Does the application require an amplifier with harmonic matching? If so, which test system is best suited to reach the design goals? This paper explores various types of amplifiers in order to identify which can or cannot take advantage of harmonic matching, and to compare and contrast various harmonic load-pull methodologies as they relate to amplifier design.
ABSTRACT:This thesis concentrates on the development of advanced large-signal measurement
and characterization tools that support transistor technology development,
model extraction and validation, and design of PAs that address
these new communication standards. In particular, the measurement systems
which will be described throughout this thesis work aim to extend the limits of
state-of-the-art, large-signal characterization systems in terms of bandwidth,
peak output power, speed and multi-functional capabilities.
For this purpose, an innovative mixed-signal approach, which replaces traditional
analog techniques with digital data acquisition and digital signal generation
and advanced digital signal processing, will be followed. This method
provides, compared to traditional techniques, a much higher
performance and speed in many different applications.
Assets of Source Pull for NVNA Based Load Pull Measurements
AUTHOR: AMCAD Engineering PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the 2012 IEEE Publications
ABSTRACT: This study deals with Vector Network Analyzer based source-pull measurements. When using a traditional power meter based source/load pull bench, source pull measurements are mandatory. However, modern VNA based load pull systems provide direct measurements of the transistor's input impedance. From the theoretical definition of any arbitrary source impedance, the mismatch calculus between input and source impedances is possible. This allows virtual, or magic source pull to be performed.
Connect with Confidence: Color-Coded Interconnects
AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the March 2013 Cables & Connectors supplement of the Microwaves Journal and republished in this form (with permission) in March 2013 by Maury Microwave Corporation.
ABSTRACT: This article presents a new solution to the problem of proper connector identification. It traces the development of the first proposed IEEE
Coaxial Connector Rapid ID color code, and its application to certain Maury Microwave products now on the Market.
This article, first appeared in print as a Special Report in the March 2013 Cables & Connectors Supplement to the Microwave Journal, and
is reprinted in this format with permission.
50 GHz Noise Parameter Measurements Using Agilent N5245A-series PNA-X with Noise Option 029
AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation PUBLICATION HISTORY: September 2012
ABSTRACT: The industry's most accurate mmW noise parameters can be obtained by combining Agilent Technologies' N5245Aseries PNA-X with Maury Microwaves MT984AU01 automated impedance tuner, MT7553B02 noise receiver module, and MT993-series ATS software suite. The turnkey solution is capable of measuring wideband noise parameters up to 50 GHz with improved speed and accuracy.
AUTHOR: Stephane Dellier, AMCAD Engineering PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the August 2012 issue of the Microwaves & RF Magazine and republished in this form (with permission) in August 2012 by Maury Microwave Corporation.
ABSTRACT: This article, first appeared in print as the cover story in the August 2012 issue of Microwaves & RF magazine, and describes this new stability analysis tool for circuit design. It is must reading for designers who need a better understanding of the nature of the linear or small signal stability or the nonlinear or large-signal stability of circuits at an early point in the design process.
Pulsed IV, Pulsed S-Parameters and Compact Transistor Models
AUTHORS: Steve Dudkiewicz, Maury Microwave Corporation PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the April 2012 issue of the Microwave Journal and republished in this form (with permission) in April 2012 by Maury Microwave Corporation.
ABSTRACT: Microwave Journal Product Feature on BILT PUlsed IV system and IVCAD software for measuring Pulsed IV and Pulsed S-Parameters and extracting Compact Transistor Models
Compact Transistor Models: The Roadmap to First-Pass Amplifier Design Success
AUTHOR:Tony Gasseling - General Manager, AMCAD Engineering PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the March 2012 issue of the Microwave Journal and republished in this form (with permission) in March 2012 by Maury Microwave Corporation.
ABSTRACT: Compact transistor modeling extraction flow is presented, including: s-parameters to determine the extrinsic and intrinsic elements, Pulsed IV measurements used to extract the diode and current source model parameter under quasi-isothermal conditions, Pulsed S parameter measurements used to extract the nonlinear capacitance models that are needed for simulations in large signal operating conditions, electro-thermal and trapping effects, and modeling validation through frequency-domain and time-domain load pull measurements.
AUTHOR:Steve Dudkiewicz - Director, Device Characterization Business Development, Maury Microwave Corporation PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the February 2011 issue of the Microwave Journal and republished in this form (with permission) in March 2011 by Maury Microwave Corporation.
ABSTRACT: Discusses the improvements in large-signal device characterization brought on by a new class of vector receiver load pull systems compared to older scalar techniques using calibrated automated load pull tuners.
AUTHOR:Steve Dudkiewicz - Director, Device Characterization Business Development, Maury Microwave Corporation PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the September 2010 issue of the Microwave Journal and republished in this form (with permission) in October 2010 by Maury Microwave Corporation.
ABSTRACT: Discusses how the evolution of load-pull tuning has led to hybrid and mixed-signal approaches that use the best features of mechanical and active tuners to speed measurements on nonlinear devices. Includes discussions of traditional passive mechanical tuner systems,harmonic load-pull techniques, active closed-loop load-pull methods, active open-loop load-pull systems, and the more recent hybrid load-pull and mixed-signal active load-pull approaches. Compares the relative merits and demerits of each approach and touches on the Maury MT2000 series Mixed-Signal Active Load-Pull systems as a advantageous solution.
Mixed-signal Active Load Pull: The Fast Track to 3G and 4G Amplifiers
AUTHOR:Mauro Marchetti - Anteverta Microwave B.V., Delft, The Netherlands PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the September 2010 issue of Microwaves and RF magazine and republished in this form (with permission) in October 2010 by Maury Microwave Corporation.
ABSTRACT: The current trend towards increased data rates in mobile services has direct implications for the power amplifiers operating in these systems. One response to this has been seen in the application of mixed-signal techniques to extend the capabilities of traditional active load-pull setups. This article presents a novel system that provides an unprecedented measurement speed, high dynamic range and is currently the only system that can handle communication standard compliant signals that are truly wideband, such as multicarrier W-CDMA. The ability to eliminate losses and electrical delay, while being completely free in defining the source and load reflection coefficients versus frequency, allows perfect mimicking of in-circuit situations, making the system a tool of fundamental importance for the RF power amplifier developer.
ABSTRACT: Active load pull has historically been a product offered in limited release and requiring heavy support. It has been of interest to educational institutions with limited appeal in industry. After decades of minimal activity, active load pull is being revitalized and commercialized by the teams at Maury Microwave and Agilent Technologies. Together, the companies offer user-friendly, commercially-viable active load pull and hybrid load pull solutions based on Agilent's PNA-X and Maury's proven ATS software.
ABSTRACT: For the first time ever, designers can measure more accurate noise parameters in 1/100th the time to 50 GHz by combining Maury's revolutionary noise parameter measurement techniques with its MT7553B01 Noise Receiver Module, impedance tuners and the Agilent PNA-X.
Pulsed-Bias Pulsed-RF Harmonic Load Pull for Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Wide Band-Gap (WBG) Devices
AUTHOR:Steve Dudkiewicz, Eng. - Maury Microwave Corporation PUBLICATION HISTORY: Originally presented by the author at a technical session of the 2nd International IEEE Conference on Microwaves, communications, Antennas and Electronic Systems (IEEE COMCAS 2009) 10 November 2009. Reprinted in this form with permission of IEEE November 2009.
ABSTRACT: For the first time ever, a commercially available pulsed-bias pulsed-RF harmonic load pull system is being offered for high power and wide band-gap devices. Pulsing DC bias in conjunction with pulsing RF reduces slow (long-term) memory effects by minimizing self-heating and trapping, giving a more realistic observance of transistor operating conditions. IV, S-Parameter and Load Pull measurements taken under pulsed-bias pulsed-RF conditions give more accurate and meaningful results for high-power pulsed applications.
Setting Up Load Pull With X-Parameters Using the Agilent NVNA
AUTHOR: Gary Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in June 2009.
ABSTRACT: This application note provides step-by-step instructions for setting up a test bench for load pull with X-parameter measurement using two Maury 98x series automated tuners, Maury ATS software version 5.1 (or newer) and the Agilent PNA-X test set to test a low-power DUT of a type suitable for direct connection to the PNA-X.
Setting Up Ultra-Fast Noise Parameters Using the Agilent PNA-X
AUTHOR: Gary Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in June 2009.
ABSTRACT: This application note provides step-by-step instructions for setting up a test bench for ultra-fast noise parameter measurement using a Maury 98x series automated tuner, Maury ATS software version 5.1 with the MT993B01 Ultra-Fast Noise Parameter Option, and the Agilent PNA-X network analyzer.
Using Impedance Tuners to Extend the Agilent 8960 Beyond 50Ω
AUTHOR: Steve Dudkiewicz - Maury Microwave Corporations PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in May 2009.
ABSTRACT: Mobile phones must guarantee proper functioning in non-ideal real-world environments, such as a lost or damaged antenna, usage in a tunnel or locker, being held close to the body or in a pocket surrounded by coins, etc. Each of these scenarios can be regarded as non-ideal from an RF standpoint, meaning non-50 ohm. We are able to use a single tuner to vary the VSWR magnitude and phase seen by the antenna port of the phone and test its performance in transmit and receive mode.
Load Pull + NVNA = Enhanced X-Parameters for PA Designs with High Mismatch and Technology-Independent Large-signal Device Models
AUTHORS: Gary Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation with Jason Horn, Dan Gunyan, David E. Root - Agilent Technologies, Santa Rosa. PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in December 2008 as a Technical Paper presented to the 72nd IEEE ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference; Republished in this format by Maury Microwave Corporation in March 2009, with permission.
ABSTRACT: X-parameters are the mathematically correct supersets of S-parameters valid for nonlinear (and linear) components under large-signal (and small-signal) conditions. This work presents an automated application combining a Nonlinear Vector Network Analyzer (NVNA) instrument with automated load-pull measurements that extends the measurement and extraction of X-parameters over the entire Smith Chart. The augmented X-parameter data include magnitude and phase as nonlinear functions of power, bias, and load, at each harmonic generated by the device and measured by the NVNA. The X-parameters can be immediately used in a nonlinear simulator for complex microwave circuit analysis and design. This capability extends the applicability of measurement-based X-parameters to highly mismatched environments, such as high-power and multi-stage amplifiers, and power transistors designed to work far from 50 ohms. It provides a powerful and general technology-independent alternative, with improved accuracy and speed, to traditional large-signal device models which are typically slow to develop and typically extrapolate large-signal operation from small-signal and DC measurements.
A New Noise Parameter Measurement Method Results in More than 100x Speed Improvement and Enhanced Measurement Accuracy
AUTHORS: Gary Simpson and Amar Ganwani - Maury Microwave Corporation with David Ballo and Joel Dunsmore - Agilent Technologies, Santa Rosa. PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in December 2008 as a Technical Paper presented to the 72nd IEEE ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference (Was voted "Best Conference Oral Presentation" by the attendees); Republished in this format by Maury Microwave Corporation in March 2009, with permission.
ABSTRACT: A new method for noise parameter measurements is introduced, with better than 100x speed improvement over traditional methods. The setup is simple and easy to configure, and the entire calibration and measurement process is very fast, making dense frequency spacing practical. The new method produces smoother data with lower scatter, and the dense frequency spacing eliminates shifts due to aliasing and makes it easier to identify the scatter and outliers.
Cascading Tuners For High-VSWR And Harmonic Load Pull
AUTHORS: Steve Dudkiewicz and Roman Meierer - Maury Microwave Corporation PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in January 2009.
ABSTRACT: For the first time ever, two or three tuners can be cascaded externally to achieve extremely high magnitudes of reflection (VSWR in the order of 100:1-200:1, £F>0.98) as well as control multiple impedances at multiple frequencies (wideband harmonic tuning). Due to the use of calibrated and interpolated data for all tuners, we are able to achieve an overall system-level accuracy of greater than 40-80dB at highest £F's.
AUTHOR: Steve Dudkiewicz - Maury Microwave Corporation PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in December 2008.
ABSTRACT: Load Pull is an invaluable tool for the mobile phone community, helping to design more robust and efficient products and guarantee their successful functionality in real-world environments. Mobile phones and their subcomponents can be tested in various stages: the internal power amplifier (PA), the front-end module (FEM), or the phone in its entirety. Maury MT993 ATS software is used to test PAs and FEMs for dozens of parameters including Power, Gain, Efficiency, Harmonic Power, Intermodulation Distortion (IMD), Error-Vector Magnitude (EVM), Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR), etc. Maury MT910 series software is a standalone application designed specifically for the testing of mobile phones in transmit and receive modes, for output power and sensitivity respectively, as a function of VSWR magnitude and phase.
Verifying the Performance of Vector Network Analyzers
AUTHOR: Mario A. Maury, Jr., MSEE - Maury Microwave Corporation PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in July 1989; revised and republished in July 1999 and February 2006.
ABSTRACT: This application note describes procedures that can be used to verify the performance and operation of a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) using just the equipment available in a standard Maury precision calibration kit. The purpose is to provide the user with a level of confidence in the accuracy of the VNA system. This information is applicable to all commercially available analyzers and is independent of the type of calibration employed.
Specifying Source-Tuner Terminating Impedance With Maury ATS
AUTHOR: John Sevic, MSEE - Maury Microwave Corporation November 2004. PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in November 2004.
ABSTRACT: The source impedance presented at the DUT reference-plane by the source-tuner is a function of the source-tuner and its terminating impedance. The terminating impedance is based on the interaction of several signal conditioning elements, such as a bias tee, a coupler, a low-pass filter, and a reference PA. How the effect of this impedance is compensated for within ATS may have a deleterious effect on the accuracy of the source impedance displayed at the DUT reference-plane. This application note describes the various methods in which Maury ATS will compensate for this impedance.
AUTHOR: John Sevic, MSEE - Maury Microwave Corporation. PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in October 2004.
ABSTRACT: A discussion of loadpull system verification using Maury ATS tuners, including a rigorous method of verifying loadpull calibration for power applications. Two examples of Delta_Gt verification are presented and compared. Also covered are common sources of error in Loadpull, and quantifying and controlling error in loadpull.
Comparison of Harmonic Tuning Methods for Load Pull Systems
AUTHOR: Gary Simpson, MSEE - Maury Microwave Corporation. PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in February 2004.
ABSTRACT: A discussion of three methods of harmonic tuning that have been offered commercially for load pull systems with passive automated tuners. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each are examined and compared.
Introduction to Tuner-Based Measurement and Characterization
AUTHOR: John Sevic, MSEE - Maury Microwave Corporation. PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in February 2004.
ABSTRACT: A discussion of tuner-based RF device characterization and measurement. A rational for automated tuner-based measurement and automated tuner-based device characterization is given, followed by a discussion of the factors that drive the choice of tuner architecture. These factors include repeatability, impedance range, tuner speed, power capability, tuner resolution, bandwidth, and the size, level of integration, and ease of integration that are characteristics of various automated tuners. Detailed explanations of how tuners synthesize impedance, when and how tuner resolution is important, and why tuner repeatability is critical, are also given. System configuration examples are given and discussion of advanced capabilities of automated tuner-based measurements is included. A glossary of terms related to these subjects is provided.
A Calibration Procedure for On-Wafer Differential Load-Pull Measurements
AUTHORS: M. Spirito; M. P. van der Heijden; M. de Kok; L. C. N. de Vreede - Laboratory of Electronic Components, Technology & Materials, KIMES, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: Reprinted with permission in November 2003 from the 61st ARFTG Conference Digest, Measurement Accuracy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; June 13, 2003.
ABSTRACT: This paper presents a calibration technique for on-wafer differential load-pull measurements. The described calibration procedure makes use of a standard GS/SG calibration substrate only. The calibration accuracy achieved is verified through various independent standard measurements.
A Sub 1Ω Load-Pull Quarter-Wave Prematching Network Based on a Two-Tier TRL Calibration
AUTHOR: John F. Sevic - Spectrian Corporation, Sunnyvale, California PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the Microwave Journal, March 1999, Vol. 43, No. 3 and republished with permission in this format in December 2002.
ABSTRACT: Transistors used for cellular and PCS infrastructure applications are required to amplify signals with a peak-to-average ratio that can exceed 13 dB, resulting in a peak envelope power (PEP) approaching 1 kW. This PEP requirement is a consequence of simultaneous amplification of multiple digitally modulated carriers with a time-varying envelope and requires a load resistance in the neighborhood of 0.3Ω. Present load-pull technology based on mechanical tuners is limited to approximately 1Ω at cellular and PCS frequencies, which renders these systems incapable of characterizing transistors under these conditions. Quarter-wave prematching networks nave been developed to transform the source- and load-pull domains to a lower impedance. A variety of techniques have been used to characterize these quarter-wave networks, including standard vector network analyzer (VNA) error correction. This article presents a further refinement of this characterization technique, which is based on a two-tier calibration using 7mm and microstrip thru-reflect-line (TRL) calibrations.
Device Characterization with Harmonic Source and Load Pull
AUTHOR: Gary Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published as an ATS training aid in June 1997; Revised and reprinted in this format in December 2000.
ABSTRACT: Automated source and load pull is widely used in power amplifier development to determine device capability and matching network requirements. Recently, harmonic load pull has become increasingly important, especially for optimizing efficiency and linearity. Harmonic source pull is also very significant for optimizing performance. Measured data shows that harmonic source tuning can sometimes have as big or bigger effect than the harmonic load tuning. When performance is critical, harmonic source tuning should be part of the process. This paper also discussed how the tuning range of passive tuner systems can be extended with prematching or with active tuners.
Automated Large-Signal Load-Pull Characterization of Adjacent-Channel Power Ratio for Digital Wireless Communication Systems
AUTHORS: John Sevic, MSEE, Robert Baeten, Gary R. Simpson and Michael B. Steer. PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the 46th ARFTG Conference Digest; Fall 1995, and reprinted by permission in this format with revisions September 2000.
ABSTRACT: Large-signal adjacent-channel power ratio load-pull contours of a GaAs MESFET and a GaAs MEMT excited by p/4-DQPSK modulation are demonstrated for the first time using an automated load-pull system. It is shown that in general there is only a weak relationship between two-tone third-order intermodulation and adjacent-channel power ratio for the (Japanese) Personal Digital Cellular standard.
AUTHORS: Gary R. Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation, Ontario, California and Michael B. Steer - Motorola RFSD, Phoenix, Arizona. PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the 48th ARFTG Conference Digest; December 1996, and reprinted by permission in this format in March 2000.
ABSTRACT: Load pull measurements are widely used to determine matching impedances required for optimum power amplifier design. In the past, this has typically been done at the fundamental frequency only. However, the harmonic terminations can have a significant effect. This paper presents some typical data which indicates the importance of second harmonic tuning to the power amplifier
AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation - Engineering Department. PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in June 1999.
ABSTRACT: Defines repeatability and discusses the repeatability specifications role in, determining how accurately and reliably a given tuner will perform. Knowledge of a tuner worst-case total repeatability specifications for all positions (and over its full frequency range) is vital in determining how that tuner will perform.
AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation - Engineering Department. PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in January 1998.
ABSTRACT: A convenient reference sheet of equations commonly used in various microwave engineering applications. Equations shown here include Return Loss, Source Match, Peak-to-Peak Ripple in dB, Outer Conductor Diameter, Mismatch Loss, and others.
AUTHORS: Mario A. Maury, Jr., Steven L. March and Gary R. Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation, Ontario, California. PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the Microwave Journal; Vol. 30, No.5 - May 1987. Reprinted by permission, with revisions in November 1997.
Data-based Load Pull Simulations for Large-Signal Transistor Model Validation
AUTHORS: John F. Sevic - QUALCOMM, Incorporated, San Diego, California; Chuck McGuire - Hewlett-Packard Company, Westlake Village, California; Gary R. Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation, Ontario, California; Jaime Pla - Motorola Incorporated, Phoenix, Arizona. PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in Microwave Journal; Vol. 40, No. 3 - March 1997; republished in this format with permission in June 1997.
ABSTRACT: A new method for large-signal transistor model validation is described. Previous methods of large-signal model validation were performed without incorporating the effect of harmonic termination. The proposed method couples a harmonic-balance engine with measured automated load-pull system S-parameter data at fundamental and harmonic frequencies. The load states are synchronized properly so that the transistor model is loaded in the simulation exactly as it is during load-pull characterization. Measured vs. simulated results for a 1mm GaAs MESFET at 2 GHz are presented.