Maury Microwave Corporation
MW & RF Characterization Solutions Precision Calibration Standards Test Essentials Company Overview

Technical Support

Maury's Customer Support and Product Support Areas

MW & RF Characterization Solutions Support


Device Characterization Tech Support
Tel: (909) 204-3283
ATS software support:
IVCAD software support:
MT2000 software support:

Precision Calibration Standards and Interconnects Support


Components Support
Tel: (909) 204-3306
email:

The links below will take you to Maury's Customer Support and Product Support areas.


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Frequently Asked Questions


We find that many of our customers have similar questions about us as a company, our products, product application, or related subjects. To serve you better, we offer this list of frequently asked questions. If you don't find the answer you need, please don't hesitate to contact us.
We also invite you to submit questions of your own, and we will add them to this list along with our response. (You will also receive a prompt answer via email.)

What are the differences between the electrical length, the physical length, and the insertion length of an adapter?

Generally, the overall length of an adapter is considered to be its physical length from connector end to connector end. The insertion length is the length an adapter will add when inserted between two connectors.

The electrical length depends on the size and type of dielectric material used in an adapter. It is measured at the mating plane of the outer conductor and is the length of the adapter as it appears to the signal traveling through it.

In many instances, the electrical length, the insertion length, and the physical length are very close to each other. In an adapter that has no dielectric, the length of the adapter (measured at the mating plane of the outer conductor) is its electrical length. (The dielectric of air is close enough to "1" that its effects can usually be ignored.) This is not the case with most adapters which contain some dielectric material. The electrical length of the adapter needs to be calculated for that portion of the adapter that contains the dielectric. In some cases (such as with TNC connectors) the mating plane of the adapter is recessed, making its physical length quite different than its electrical length. Physical differences between female and male connectors and variations in the amount of dielectric material used in each can also make phase matched adapters appear to be of different physical lengths even though their electrical lengths are the same.

Whatever your application may be, Maury Microwave offers a wide variety of coaxial and waveguide adapter types and configurations that are designed to meet your needs. Please contact our Sales Department to discuss your specific requirements.

What are the advantages/disadvantages of stub tuners versus slide screw tuners?

Apart from their obvious physical differences, slide screw tuners perform much more predictably and are more intuitive to use than stub tuners. When the stub on a stub tuner is adjusted, the resultant change in impedance can be considerable, both in magnitude and phase. With slide screw tuners, impedance magnitude is changed by varying the probe depth, and phase is changed by varying the carriage position. Obtaining a repeatable measurement is, therefore, much easier with slide screw tuners than with stub tuners. One disadvantage of stub tuners is that the metal-to-metal contact (inherent in their design) makes them subject to greater wear than slide screw tuners (which have no metal-to-metal contact). Also, the stubs of stub tuners are actually short circuits. This can present problems if a DC short is not permissible (which is often the case when testing active devices or circuits).

The chief advantage of stub tuners is their low cost (relative to other types of tuners) which may make them a better choice in applications where the need for accuracy and repeatability is less critical.

Likewise, slide screw tuners can be an attractive lower-cost alternative to automated tuners in device characterization and load pull measurement applications.

Whatever your application may be, from stub tuners to complete automated tuner systems, Maury Microwave offers a wide variety of tuner models and configurations that are designed to meet your needs. Please contact our Sales Department to discuss your specific requirements.

What are the benefits of using connector gages?

Using a connector gage is important for two critical reasons. Checking the contact location (or depth) of a connector contact ensures that it does not 1) protrude beyond, or 2) recess below its specification. Both situations create undesirable conditions that degrade electrical performance, and protruding connector contacts have the added potential for causing serious damage to connectors and equipment.

A protruding contact will cause an "interference fit" between two connectors, resulting in poor electrical performance. As the connection is tightened, pressure against the contacts will cause them to bend, crush, or possibly even break. The cost of repairing a test port damaged by a bad connector can be very high.

A recessed contact won't cause an interference fit, so damage is not an issue, but a "gap fit" between two connectors will occur where contacts fail to meet properly. The gap creates a discontinuity and a poor mismatch condition results, which has a negative impact on electrical performance that is proportional to the size of the gap.

(The same criteria hold true for measuring the dielectric location in connectors that contain dielectric material.)

When critical electrical performance is a must, properly mated connections are essential. Measurement experts agree that the critical dimensions of each connector should always be verified before making connections. The easiest way to verify connector dimensions is with an appropriate connector gage.

Maury Microwave offers the right tools for this job, with over 30 gage types and more than 20 gage kit configurations available. Please contact our Sales Department to discuss your specific requirements.

Can I use my calibration kit with one type of connector and then use an adapter to measure a different type of connector?

Generally, you should always calibrate your test setup in the same type of connector that you plan to use when making measurements. Inserting an adapter after the setup is calibrated effectively invalidates the calibration. However, if you must insert an adapter to facilitate a connection, remember that the adapter will add to the measurement uncertainty and its presence must be considered. The effective directivity will then be the sum of the corrected directivity plus the reflection of the adapter.

Maury Microwave offers a wide variety of coaxial and waveguide calibration kits in most popular connector types and sizes. Please contact our Sales Department to discuss your specific requirements.

What are the differences between SMA, 3.5mm, and 2.92mm connectors, and can they be mated?

A major difference between SMA, 3.5mm, and 2.92mm connectors is their frequency of operation. Some SMA connectors are rated up to 26.5 GHz, but the majority (and the devices using them) are only rated up to 18 GHz. Similarly, most 3.5mm connectors are rated to operate as high as 34 GHz, although their typical use is only up to 26.5 GHz. Most 2.92mm connectors are rated to operate as high as 40 GHz.

Another difference is that SMA connectors have a dielectric interface while 3.5mm and 2.92mm connectors are air-interface connectors. The air interface provides for a more repeatable connection with better electrical performance. (See Maury application note 5A-011.)

A 3.5mm or 2.92mm designation refers to the inside diameter of a connector's outer conductor. A 3.5mm connector's outer conductor has a 0.1378 inch (3.5mm) inside diameter, and a 2.92mm connector's outer conductor has a 0.1151 inch (2.92mm) diameter.

The center conductor diameters of 3.5mm and 2.92mm connectors also differ; being 0.0598 inches (1.520mm) and 0.0500 inches (1.270mm) respectively. The ratio between inner and outer conductors provides the 50 ohm nominal impedance of these connectors. (See Maury technical data sheet 5D-003: Handy Microwave Formulas.)

SMA connectors have a teflon dielectric interface. Adjustments to the inner and outer conductors are made to compensate for the thickness of the dielectric material. This can cause greater variation in electrical performance (due to dielectric material inconsistencies) than is typical of the relatively stable air dielectric of 3.5mm and 2.92mm connectors. The SMA connector's outer conductor diameter is usually increased to compensate for the dielectric. This reduces the wall thickness of the mating portion of the male SMA outer conductor. Reduced mating surfaces result in weakened outer conductor interfaces that are subject to compression damage when repeatedly connected. Compression of the outer conductor's mating surface degrades the electrical performance of a connector, and (because the center conductor is inserted further into the mating connector) damage to the female connector can result.

How then can all three types of connectors be mated with each other given these differences? Mating is possible because the pin portion of their male center conductors and the inside diameter of the female contacts are the same diameter in all three connectors. This enables the male pin in a 2.92mm connector to be inserted into the female contact in a 3.5mm connector and vice versa. In addition, the coupling portion of the outer conductor and the thread size and diameter are the same on all three connectors.

However, some misalignment of the outer and the inner conductors is inevitable when different connectors are mated. This misalignment creates a discontinuity that can reduce the overall electrical performance when connectors of different types are mated. (Interestingly, tests have indicated that SMA connectors mated with 3.5mm connectors may actually provide better overall performance than two mated SMA connectors. See Maury application note 5A-011)

Maury Microwave offers a wide variety of precision connectors in most popular types and sizes, including SMA, 3.5mm, and 2.92mm. Please contact our Sales Department to discuss your specific requirements.

How can I tell if my vector network analyzer (VNA) has a good calibration?

A simple (but effective) method for verifying that a proper calibration has been performed on your vector network analyzer is to check the residual source match error. Source match verification is performed using an air line (or waveguide straight section) and a fixed short circuit. The air line is connected to the VNA test port and the fixed short is connected to the air line. The scale on the analyzer is set appropriately for the display and the ripple pattern is measured. The amount of ripple measured will indicate the source match error. The smaller the ripple - the better the source match. Ideally, the source match error should be greater than 45 dB. Source match error can be of particular importance if the device-under-test (DUT) has a high VSWR. Many of Maury Microwave's calibration kits contain air lines or waveguide straight sections for this purpose. The method for verifying source match is illustrated below. See Maury Application Note 5C-026 and Technical Data Sheet 5D-025 for more on VNA calibrations.

FAQ-6

What is TRL calibration?

Traditional, full, two-port calibration methods typically use three impedance standards and one transmission standard to calibrate a vector network analyzer (VNA). The standards normally used in this method are shorts, opens, loads, and thrus (making this what is often referred to as a SOLT calibration).

A thru-reflect-line (TRL) two-port calibration kit uses at least three standards to define the calibrated reference plane. The measured parameters of the thru, reflect, and line standards in a TRL calibration kit perform the same function as a SOLT calibration. A variation of the TRL method is the line-reflect-line (LRL) calibration, wherein one line section represents the thru portion of the calibration. LRL kits are typically used in coaxial applications where frequency bandwidth and mechanical limitations may prohibit the use of a single line section. The line section of a TRL calibration should be 1/4 wavelength, or 90° (the exact length is not critical as long as it is known) and should not be multiples of 1/2 wavelengths or 180°. A phase difference between 18° and 162° has proven to be adequate in some cases, however the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Hewlett-Packard both recommend that the phase difference remain between 30° and 150°. For more information on TRL / LRL calibrations, see Maury application note 5A-017.

Either type of kit may be used, depending on the available calibration standards and the VNA's functionality. Some of the tradeoffs (advantages versus disadvantages) are as follows:

SOLT calibration standards can be difficult - if not impossible - to build in many non-coaxial measurement applications (such as in-fixture, wafer and waveguide measurements). Also, the TRL method may be the only option when calibration standards for proprietary or unique connectors are not readily available.

In many cases (particularly waveguide), it is easier to manufacture a superior impedance standard for a TRL calibration kit than for a SOLT calibration kit. The line section effectively represents the impedance standard in TRL calibration. Therefore, standards for a straight section (in waveguide) and a beadles air line (in coaxial) can be defined by their mechanical specifications. Also, it is often easier to build to (and verify) mechanical dimensions than to traditional impedance standards (or loads) which are usually verified by comparison to another standard.

Some disadvantages of the TRL calibration are; a) this method can only be used to perform two-port calibrations, and b) the length of the air lines may prohibit performance of a TRL calibration at low frequencies. (Maury Microwave's TRL / LRL coaxial tri-kits are designed to overcome these disadvantages by including precision fixed loads, which can be used to perform one-port calibrations and calibrations at low frequencies.)

Maury Microwave offers a wide variety of coaxial and waveguide calibration kits in most popular connector types and sizes, including TRL kits. See Maury data sheets 2Z-042 (7mm), 2Z-043 (Type N) and 2Z-044 (7-16) for specifications. Please contact our Sales Department to discuss your specific requirements.

What is the power handling capability of Maury Microwave adapters?

Generally, Maury Microwave's adapters and connectors are designed for low power laboratory applications where high power requirements are typically not needed. Typical power handling for most of our common types of connectors are listed here. .

Caution! This is a general guideline and is not intended as a guarantee that the power levels shown can be realized and are safe in every application.

For waveguide-to-coaxial adapters, the power handling capability of the connector usually determines the rating of the adapter, so the same formulas will apply. This is also true for most between-series coaxial-to-coaxial adapters.

Maury Microwave does offer special waveguide-to-coaxial adapters designed for high power applications. Please contact our Sales Department to discuss your specific requirements.

Does Maury Microwave manufacture line stretchers?

Maury Microwave manufactures a wide variety of variable impedance tuning devices such as double or triple stub tuners, slide screw tuners, sliding loads, shorts, and opens. Unfortunately, we no longer manufacture line stretchers. Microlab FXR (Tel:973 992-7700) is a company that still manufactures line stretchers.

How do I import Maury loadpull data into Agilent's ADS?

Agilent has developed an ADS DesignGuide that enables you to import your Maury loadpull files into ADS. To learn more about this capability, see the Agilent on-line ADS DesignGuide at: http://eesof.tm.agilent.com/applications/loadpull-b.html

Product Manuals


Click the links below to download and view copies of Maury's Product Manuals. These files will download to your computer as .pdf (portable document format) files and can be viewed with Adobe® Acrobat Reader™. Download the Free PDF reader from Adobe.com An Overview of NEW FEATURES AND FUNCTIONS; Automated Tuner System Software (ATS) Version 4.0 (2.4 MB) Publication Date: June 20, 2005 Document Number: MT993-126 This 36 page pocket-size booklet describes the new features and functions found in the ATS version 4.0 software, including enhancements and new capabilities for: Power Noise LSNA (Large-Signal Network Analysis) GUI and Interface Online Help New Documentation and Application Notes New 4.00 Hardware-Tested Drivers Automated Tuner System PC Based Application Software Revision 3.00 Operating Manual (67.4 MB) Publication Date: October 24, 2005 Document Number: MT993-2 Rev. L This 181 page 8.5 by 11-inch manual describes all the features and functions found in the ATS version 3.0 software, which migrates these functions from earlier DOS versions to the first Windows® 98/2000/XP compatible version of the ATS SNP applications. Software Models and Options covered are: MT993A - Power Characterization Application MT993B - Noise Characterization Application MT993C - Power and Noise Characterization Applications Bundle MT993D - Intermodulation Distorion & Adjacent Channel Power Measurement Applications MT993D02 - Oscillator Characterization Option for MT993A & MT993B Applications MT993F - System Controll Option for MT993A & MT993B Applications MT993G - DCIV Curve Measurement Option for MT993A /B/C Applications MT993H - Harmonic Tuning Measurement Option for MT993A & MT993C Applications MT993D01 - Signal Synthesis Option for MT993A & MT993C Applications MT993N01 - "NO TUNER" Option which limits operation to S-Parameter, Noise Figure & Swept Power MT993N07 - Enhanced Graphics Upgrade MT956D v3.1 - Fixture Software for Fixture S-Parameter and Measurement Applications

Calibration Services


Description

At Maury Microwave our commitment to quality doesn't end with the sale of a product. In our state-of-the-art microwave laboratory, we offer both ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (MIL-STD-45662A) calibration and commercial level calibration services for every product we produce. Our laboratory is ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 ISO 10012 compliant with traceability to NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology).

Each Maury Microwave product is shipped with a certificate of conformance which assures that it has been tested and found to be within operational tolerances. As these products are used, changes can occur which may result in an out of tolerance condition. Periodic calibrations are therefore recommended to maintain functional integrity. We are happy to perform the calibrations you need at a reasonable cost.

Please contact our Customer Service Department to obtain quotations for the specific calibration services you require. Quoted prices will cover the cost of all applicable measurements and include written calibration reports documenting the mechanical and electrical data. If parts are out of tolerance, the cost of repair or replacement will be quoted for your approval prior to the start of any additional work.

It is recommended that the following items be placed on a 12-month calibration cycle:

Microwave Products

Calibration Kits Verification Kits Coaxial Components for Laboratory Use Waveguide Components for Laboratory Use Automated Tuner Systems Noise Products

Noise Calibration Systems (Cryogenic, Thermal, and Ambient Terminations) Mechanical Products

Torque Wrenches Connector Gages

Warranty & Service


Maury Calibration Standards/Components/Test Accessories

Maury takes extreme pride inthe quality and performance of our products. We are leaders in this regard with one of the lowest product returns in the industry. Still, dispite rigorous quality checks, a product may need to be returned for a warranty repair. The statement below is our warranty for all Maury Calibration Standards, Components, and Test Accessories:

We warrant each instrument of our manufacture to be free from defects in material and workmanship. Our obligation under this warranty is limited to servicing or adjusting any instrument returned to our factory for that purpose, and to making good at our factory any part or parts thereof except fuses or batteries. This warranty period is limited to one year from date of shipment to the original purchaser, and to equipment which is returned to us with transportation charges prepaid and which, upon our examination, shall disclose to our satisfaction to have been defective. This warranty does not cover wear from normal usage nor subsequent damage after shipment. We reserve the right to make changes in design at any time without incurring any obligation to install such changes on units previously sold by us.

This constitutes the only warranty extended by us, and is in lieu of any other obligations or libilities on our part in connection with the sale of our equipment.

Maury Automated Tuner Systems and Fully Integrated Turnkey Device Characterization Systems

Maury takes extreme pride in the quality and performance of our products. We are leaders in this regard with one of the lowest product returns rates in the industry. Still, dispite rigorous quality checks, a product may need to be returned for a warranty repair. The statement below is our warranty for all Maury Automated Tuner Systems, and the Maury-manufactured instruments that comprise them. Additional warranty may exist for insturments and system components manufactured by other companies and supplied with or as part of a Maury Fully Integrated Turnkey Device Characterization System:

We warrant each instrument of our manufacture to be free from defects in material and workmanship. Our obligation under this warranty is limited to servicing or adjusting any instrument returned to our factory for that purpose, and to making good at our factory any part or parts thereof except fuses or batteries. This warranty period is limited to one year from date of shipment to the original purchaser, and to equipment which is returned to us with transportation charges prepaid and which, upon our examination, shall disclose to our satisfaction to have been defective. This warranty does not cover wear from normal usage nor subsequent damage after shipment.

We reserve the right to make changes in design at any time without incurring any obligation to install such changes on units previously sold by us.

This constitutes the only warranty extended by us, and is in lieu of any other obligations or libilities on our part in connection with the sale of our equipment.

Maury Solid State Tuner-Based Systems

Maury takes extreme pride inthe quality and performance of our products. We are leaders in this regard with one of the lowest product returns in the industry. Still, dispite rigorous quality checks, a product may need to be returned for a warranty repair. The statement below is our warranty for all Maury Calibration Standards, Components, and Test Accessories:

We warrant each instrument of our manufacture to be free from defects in material and workmanship. Our obligation under this warranty is limited to servicing or adjusting any instrument returned to our factory for that purpose, and to making good at our factory any part or parts thereof except fuses or batteries. This warranty period is limited to one year from date of shipment to the original purchaser, and to equipment which is returned to us with transportation charges prepaid and which, upon our examination, shall disclose to our satisfaction to have been defective. This warranty does not cover wear from normal usage nor subsequent damage after shipment.

We reserve the right to make changes in design at any time without incurring any obligation to install such changes on units previously sold by us.

This constitutes the only warranty extended by us, and is in lieu of any other obligations or libilities on our part in connection with the sale of our equipment.

If you need warranty service, technical support, or repairs, contact:

Calibration & Repair
Email:
Tel: (909) 204-3287

Maury Application Notes Library


Download application notes relating to Maury products and Subjects of Interest

To download a copy of Maury Microwaves Application Notes on a particular subject, click on the title(s) of your choice from the list below. These files will download to your computer as .pdf (portable document format) files and can be viewed with Adobe® Acrobat Reader™.

Download the PDF reader from Adobe.com +
Request printed versions of application notes

Listed by Publication Date - Most Recent Dates First

2011

Vector-Receiver Load Pull Measurement

AUTHOR: Steve Dudkiewicz - Director, Device Characterization Business Development, Maury Microwave Corporation
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the February 2011 issue of the Microwave Journal and republished in this form (with permission) in March 2011 by Maury Microwave Corporation.

ABSTRACT: Discusses the improvements in large-signal device characterization brought on by a new class of vector receiver load pull systems compared to older scalar techniques using calibrated automated load pull tuners.

5A-051 + (2.26 MB)


2010

Tracing The Evolution Of Load-Pull Methods

AUTHOR: Steve Dudkiewicz - Director, Device Characterization Business Development, Maury Microwave Corporation
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the September 2010 issue of the Microwave Journal and republished in this form (with permission) in October 2010 by Maury Microwave Corporation.

ABSTRACT: Discusses how the evolution of load-pull tuning has led to hybrid and mixed-signal approaches that use the best features of mechanical and active tuners to speed measurements on nonlinear devices. Includes discussions of traditional passive mechanical tuner systems,harmonic load-pull techniques, active closed-loop load-pull methods, active open-loop load-pull systems, and the more recent hybrid load-pull and mixed-signal active load-pull approaches. Compares the relative merits and demerits of each approach and touches on the Maury MT2000 series Mixed-Signal Active Load-Pull systems as a advantageous solution.

5A-050 + (6.47 MB)

Mixed-signal Active Load Pull: The Fast Track to 3G and 4G Amplifiers

AUTHOR: Mauro Marchetti - Anteverta Microwave B.V., Delft, The Netherlands
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the September 2010 issue of Microwaves and RF magazine and republished in this form (with permission) in October 2010 by Maury Microwave Corporation.

ABSTRACT: The current trend towards increased data rates in mobile services has direct implications for the power amplifiers operating in these systems. One response to this has been seen in the application of mixed-signal techniques to extend the capabilities of traditional active load-pull setups. This article presents a novel system that provides an unprecedented measurement speed, high dynamic range and is currently the only system that can handle communication standard compliant signals that are truly wideband, such as multicarrier W-CDMA. The ability to eliminate losses and electrical delay, while being completely free in defining the source and load reflection coefficients versus frequency, allows perfect mimicking of in-circuit situations, making the system a tool of fundamental importance for the RF power amplifier developer.

5A-049 + (2.7 MB)

Using Maury ATS Software to Extend the Agilent PNA-X to Active Load Pull - An Introduction to Active Load Pull

AUTHOR: Steve Dudkiewicz, Eng. - Maury Microwave Corporation
PUBLICATION HISTORY: May 2010

ABSTRACT: Active load pull has historically been a product offered in limited release and requiring heavy support. It has been of interest to educational institutions with limited appeal in industry. After decades of minimal activity, active load pull is being revitalized and commercialized by the teams at Maury Microwave and Agilent Technologies. Together, the companies offer user-friendly, commercially-viable active load pull and hybrid load pull solutions based on Agilent's PNA-X and Maury's proven ATS software.

5C-086 + (731 KB)

Using an Impedance Tuner and Noise Receiver Module to Extend the Agilent PNA-X to 50 GHz Noise Parameters

AUTHOR: Steve Dudkiewicz, Eng. - Maury Microwave Corporation
PUBLICATION HISTORY: May 2010

ABSTRACT: For the first time ever, designers can measure more accurate noise parameters in 1/100th the time to 50 GHz by combining Maury's revolutionary noise parameter measurement techniques with its MT7553B01 Noise Receiver Module, impedance tuners and the Agilent PNA-X.

5C-085 + (752 KB)


2009

Pulsed-Bias Pulsed-RF Harmonic Load Pull for Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Wide Band-Gap (WBG) Devices

AUTHOR: Steve Dudkiewicz, Eng. - Maury Microwave Corporation
PUBLICATION HISTORY: Originally presented by the author at a technical session of the 2nd International IEEE Conference on Microwaves, communications, Antennas and Electronic Systems (IEEE COMCAS 2009) 10 November 2009. Reprinted in this form with permission of IEEE November 2009.

ABSTRACT: For the first time ever, a commercially available pulsed-bias pulsed-RF harmonic load pull system is being offered for high power and wide band-gap devices. Pulsing DC bias in conjunction with pulsing RF reduces slow (long-term) memory effects by minimizing self-heating and trapping, giving a more realistic observance of transistor operating conditions. IV, S-Parameter and Load Pull measurements taken under pulsed-bias pulsed-RF conditions give more accurate and meaningful results for high-power pulsed applications.

5A-043 + (1011 KB)


Setting Up Load Pull With X-Parameters Using the Agilent NVNA

AUTHOR: Gary Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in June 2009.

ABSTRACT: This application note provides step-by-step instructions for setting up a test bench for load pull with X-parameter measurement using two Maury 98x series automated tuners, Maury ATS software version 5.1 (or newer) and the Agilent PNA-X test set to test a low-power DUT of a type suitable for direct connection to the PNA-X.

5C-083 + (791 KB)


Setting Up Ultra-Fast Noise Parameters Using the Agilent PNA-X

AUTHOR: Gary Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in June 2009.

ABSTRACT: This application note provides step-by-step instructions for setting up a test bench for ultra-fast noise parameter measurement using a Maury 98x series automated tuner, Maury ATS software version 5.1 with the MT993B01 Ultra-Fast Noise Parameter Option, and the Agilent PNA-X network analyzer.

5C-084 + (520 KB)


Using Impedance Tuners to Extend the Agilent 8960 Beyond 50Ω

AUTHOR: Steve Dudkiewicz - Maury Microwave Corporations
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in May 2009.

ABSTRACT: Mobile phones must guarantee proper functioning in non-ideal real-world environments, such as a lost or damaged antenna, usage in a tunnel or locker, being held close to the body or in a pocket surrounded by coins, etc. Each of these scenarios can be regarded as non-ideal from an RF standpoint, meaning non-50 ohm. We are able to use a single tuner to vary the VSWR magnitude and phase seen by the antenna port of the phone and test its performance in transmit and receive mode.

5C-080A + (2.3 MB)


Load Pull + NVNA = Enhanced X-Parameters for PA Designs with High Mismatch and Technology-Independent Large-signal Device Models

AUTHORS: Gary Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation with Jason Horn, Dan Gunyan, David E. Root - Agilent Technologies, Santa Rosa.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in December 2008 as a Technical Paper presented to the 72nd IEEE ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference; Republished in this format by Maury Microwave Corporation in March 2009, with permission.

ABSTRACT: X-parameters are the mathematically correct supersets of S-parameters valid for nonlinear (and linear) components under large-signal (and small-signal) conditions. This work presents an automated application combining a Nonlinear Vector Network Analyzer (NVNA) instrument with automated load-pull measurements that extends the measurement and extraction of X-parameters over the entire Smith Chart. The augmented X-parameter data include magnitude and phase as nonlinear functions of power, bias, and load, at each harmonic generated by the device and measured by the NVNA. The X-parameters can be immediately used in a nonlinear simulator for complex microwave circuit analysis and design. This capability extends the applicability of measurement-based X-parameters to highly mismatched environments, such as high-power and multi-stage amplifiers, and power transistors designed to work far from 50 ohms. It provides a powerful and general technology-independent alternative, with improved accuracy and speed, to traditional large-signal device models which are typically slow to develop and typically extrapolate large-signal operation from small-signal and DC measurements.

5A-041 + (824 KB)


A New Noise Parameter Measurement Method Results in More than 100x Speed Improvement and Enhanced Measurement Accuracy

AUTHORS: Gary Simpson and Amar Ganwani - Maury Microwave Corporation with David Ballo and Joel Dunsmore - Agilent Technologies, Santa Rosa.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in December 2008 as a Technical Paper presented to the 72nd IEEE ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference (Was voted "Best Conference Oral Presentation" by the attendees); Republished in this format by Maury Microwave Corporation in March 2009, with permission.

ABSTRACT: A new method for noise parameter measurements is introduced, with better than 100x speed improvement over traditional methods. The setup is simple and easy to configure, and the entire calibration and measurement process is very fast, making dense frequency spacing practical. The new method produces smoother data with lower scatter, and the dense frequency spacing eliminates shifts due to aliasing and makes it easier to identify the scatter and outliers.

5A-042 + (902 KB)


Cascading Tuners For High-VSWR And Harmonic Load Pull

AUTHORS: Steve Dudkiewicz and Roman Meierer - Maury Microwave Corporation
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in January 2009.

ABSTRACT: For the first time ever, two or three tuners can be cascaded externally to achieve extremely high magnitudes of reflection (VSWR in the order of 100:1-200:1, £F>0.98) as well as control multiple impedances at multiple frequencies (wideband harmonic tuning). Due to the use of calibrated and interpolated data for all tuners, we are able to achieve an overall system-level accuracy of greater than 40-80dB at highest £F's.

5C-081 + (832.3 KB)


2008

Impedance Testing For Mobile Phones

AUTHOR: Steve Dudkiewicz - Maury Microwave Corporation
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in December 2008.

ABSTRACT: Load Pull is an invaluable tool for the mobile phone community, helping to design more robust and efficient products and guarantee their successful functionality in real-world environments. Mobile phones and their subcomponents can be tested in various stages: the internal power amplifier (PA), the front-end module (FEM), or the phone in its entirety. Maury MT993 ATS software is used to test PAs and FEMs for dozens of parameters including Power, Gain, Efficiency, Harmonic Power, Intermodulation Distortion (IMD), Error-Vector Magnitude (EVM), Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR), etc. Maury MT910 series software is a standalone application designed specifically for the testing of mobile phones in transmit and receive modes, for output power and sensitivity respectively, as a function of VSWR magnitude and phase.

5C-080 + (421 KB)


2006

Verifying VNA Source Match Using Coaxial Offset Shorts

AUTHOR: Bill Pastori - Maury Microwave Corporation
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in March 1990; Revised and republished in July 1999 and February 2006.

ABSTRACT: This application note describes a method of evaluating effective source match in coaxial measurement systems using just a long offset short.

5C-027 249 KB)


Verifying the Performance of Vector Network Analyzers

AUTHOR: Mario A. Maury, Jr., MSEE - Maury Microwave Corporation
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in July 1989; revised and republished in July 1999 and February 2006.

ABSTRACT: This application note describes procedures that can be used to verify the performance and operation of a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) using just the equipment available in a standard Maury precision calibration kit. The purpose is to provide the user with a level of confidence in the accuracy of the VNA system. This information is applicable to all commercially available analyzers and is independent of the type of calibration employed.

5C-026 + (328 KB)


2005

Over-Temperature Noise Modeling of Submicron Devices Brought the Question: Is the Diffusion Coefficient Temperature Dependent?

AUTHOR: Ali Boudiaf, PhD - Maury Microwave Corporation
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in March 2005.

ABSTRACT: A new procedure is presented for modeling the variations on the temperature of the noise source coefficients
related to the gate and the drain of a field effect transistor (FET).

5C-072 + (393 KB)


Signal Characterization and Modulation Theory

AUTHOR: John Sevic, MSEE; Maury Microwave Corporation.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: This paper first appeared as Chapter 3.3 in The RF and Microwave Handbook, Series: Electrical Engineering Handbook; Volume 22, by Mike Golio - Motorola, Tempe, Arizona, USA; Publisher: CRC Press,12/20/2000; ISBN: 084938592X (available on line at: http://www.crcpress.com/shopping_cart/products/product_contents.asp?id=&parent_id=&sku=8592&pc). Reprinted by permission in March 2005.

ABSTRACT: Contemporary microwave circuit design requires a basic understanding of digital modulation theory in order to meet the needs of a customer who ultimately speaks in terms of communication theory. This paper provides a brief overview of the signal analysis tools necessary for the microwave engineer to understand digital modulation and how it impacts the design and characterization of microwave circuits used in contemporary wireless communication systems. Complex envelope analysis is introduced as a means of describing arbitrarily modulated signals, leading to a geometric interpretation of modulation. The necessity and subsequent implications of band-limiting PSK signals is discussed. As an alternative to PSK, CPM is also introduced. Signal analysis methods are often used to simplify the design process. Although the peak-to-average ratio of a signal is widely used to estimate the linearity requirements of a PA, it is shown that this metric is ill-suited in general for this purpose due to the random distribution of instantaneous power of a signal. The envelope distribution function (EDF) is introduced as a means of comparing various signals and to provide a more accurate estimate of the required linearity performance of a PA.

5C-057 + (338 KB)


Tuner Instantaneous Bandwidth, Linear Network Distortion, and Intermodulation and ACPR Loadpull Characterization

AUTHORS: John Sevic, MSEE and Richard N. Wallace - Maury Microwave Corporation.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in March 2005.

ABSTRACT: This application note illustrates how a linear network can induce asymmetry in intermodulation mixing products as a consequence of nonlinear phase response with respect to frequency. This effect, due to a non constant group delay over the modulation bandwidth, is often referred to as linear distortion. A method is described for characterizing Maury's ATS tuners to quantify their instantaneous bandwidth, resulting in identification of a maximum modulation bandwidth. It is shown that in most circumstances, Maury tuners are transparent at modulation bandwidths suitable for wideband applications such as 3GPP and 802.11x. Guidelines are also provided to minimize the induced asymmetry of linear networks commonly used in loadpull, such as bias networks and fixture networks.

5C-063 + (237 KB)


Measuring True PAE Using A Maury Automated Tuner System

AUTHORS: John Sevic, MSEE, and Ray Qin; Maury Microwave Corporation.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in March 2005.

ABSTRACT: This application note discusses the theory behind the measurement of true Power Added Efficiency (PAE) and shows how to configure Agilent 8753x and 8510x series of VNAs for true PAE characterization. A plot is also given showing the error introduced by assuming transducer gain and power gain are equal, which is what loadpull systems provided by other manufacturers assume.

5C-065 + (230 KB)


Power, Transducer, Available and Insertion Gains Defined

AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation - Engineering Department.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in March 2005.

ABSTRACT: A convenient reference sheet of equations that define Power Gain, Transducer Gain, Available Gain, and Insertion Gain.

5D-003A + (47 KB)


Characterization of Nonlinearity Using a Loadpull System

AUTHOR: John Sevic, MSEE - Maury Microwave Corporation.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in March 2005.

ABSTRACT: This application note discusses the basics of load pull configuration and verification for optimum nonlinear load pull analysis of intermodulation and ACPR.

5C-061 + (170 KB)


2004

Specifying Source-Tuner Terminating Impedance With Maury ATS

AUTHOR: John Sevic, MSEE - Maury Microwave Corporation November 2004.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in November 2004.

ABSTRACT: The source impedance presented at the DUT reference-plane by the source-tuner is a function of the source-tuner and its terminating impedance. The terminating impedance is based on the interaction of several signal conditioning elements, such as a bias tee, a coupler, a low-pass filter, and a reference PA. How the effect of this impedance is compensated for within ATS may have a deleterious effect on the accuracy of the source impedance displayed at the DUT reference-plane. This application note describes the various methods in which Maury ATS will compensate for this impedance.

5C-058 + (413 KB)


Basic Verification of Power Loadpull Systems

AUTHOR: John Sevic, MSEE - Maury Microwave Corporation.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in October 2004.

ABSTRACT: A discussion of loadpull system verification using Maury ATS tuners, including a rigorous method of verifying loadpull calibration for power applications. Two examples of Delta_Gt verification are presented and compared. Also covered are common sources of error in Loadpull, and quantifying and controlling error in loadpull.

5C-055 + (413 KB)


Comparison of Harmonic Tuning Methods for Load Pull Systems

AUTHOR: Gary Simpson, MSEE - Maury Microwave Corporation.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in February 2004.

ABSTRACT: A discussion of three methods of harmonic tuning that have been offered commercially for load pull systems with passive automated tuners. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each are examined and compared.

5C-053 + (497 KB)


Introduction to Tuner-Based Measurement and Characterization

AUTHOR: John Sevic, MSEE - Maury Microwave Corporation.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in February 2004.

ABSTRACT: A discussion of tuner-based RF device characterization and measurement. A rational for automated tuner-based measurement and automated tuner-based device characterization is given, followed by a discussion of the factors that drive the choice of tuner architecture. These factors include repeatability, impedance range, tuner speed, power capability, tuner resolution, bandwidth, and the size, level of integration, and ease of integration that are characteristics of various automated tuners. Detailed explanations of how tuners synthesize impedance, when and how tuner resolution is important, and why tuner repeatability is critical, are also given. System configuration examples are given and discussion of advanced capabilities of automated tuner-based measurements is included. A glossary of terms related to these subjects is provided.

5C-054 + (139 KB)


2003

A Calibration Procedure for On-Wafer Differential Load-Pull Measurements

AUTHORS: M. Spirito; M. P. van der Heijden; M. de Kok; L. C. N. de Vreede - Laboratory of Electronic Components, Technology & Materials, KIMES, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: Reprinted with permission in November 2003 from the 61st ARFTG Conference Digest, Measurement Accuracy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; June 13, 2003.

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a calibration technique for on-wafer differential load-pull measurements. The described calibration procedure makes use of a standard GS/SG calibration substrate only. The calibration accuracy achieved is verified through various independent standard measurements.

5A-037 + (253 KB)


2002

A Sub 1Ω Load-Pull Quarter-Wave Prematching Network Based on a Two-Tier TRL Calibration

AUTHOR: John F. Sevic - Spectrian Corporation, Sunnyvale, California
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the Microwave Journal, March 1999, Vol. 43, No. 3 and republished with permission in this format in December 2002.

ABSTRACT: Transistors used for cellular and PCS infrastructure applications are required to amplify signals with a peak-to-average ratio that can exceed 13 dB, resulting in a peak envelope power (PEP) approaching 1 kW. This PEP requirement is a consequence of simultaneous amplification of multiple digitally modulated carriers with a time-varying envelope and requires a load resistance in the neighborhood of 0.3Ω. Present load-pull technology based on mechanical tuners is limited to approximately 1Ω at cellular and PCS frequencies, which renders these systems incapable of characterizing transistors under these conditions. Quarter-wave prematching networks nave been developed to transform the source- and load-pull domains to a lower impedance. A variety of techniques have been used to characterize these quarter-wave networks, including standard vector network analyzer (VNA) error correction. This article presents a further refinement of this characterization technique, which is based on a two-tier calibration using 7mm and microstrip thru-reflect-line (TRL) calibrations.

5A-036 + (76 KB)


2000

Device Characterization with Harmonic Source and Load Pull

AUTHOR: Gary Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published as an ATS training aid in June 1997; Revised and reprinted in this format in December 2000.

ABSTRACT: Automated source and load pull is widely used in power amplifier development to determine device capability and matching network requirements. Recently, harmonic load pull has become increasingly important, especially for optimizing efficiency and linearity. Harmonic source pull is also very significant for optimizing performance. Measured data shows that harmonic source tuning can sometimes have as big or bigger effect than the harmonic load tuning. When performance is critical, harmonic source tuning should be part of the process. This paper also discussed how the tuning range of passive tuner systems can be extended with prematching or with active tuners.

5C-044 + (31 KB)


Automated Large-Signal Load-Pull Characterization of Adjacent-Channel Power Ratio for Digital Wireless Communication Systems

AUTHORS: John Sevic, MSEE, Robert Baeten, Gary R. Simpson and Michael B. Steer.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the 46th ARFTG Conference Digest; Fall 1995, and reprinted by permission in this format with revisions September 2000.

ABSTRACT: Large-signal adjacent-channel power ratio load-pull contours of a GaAs MESFET and a GaAs MEMT excited by p/4-DQPSK modulation are demonstrated for the first time using an automated load-pull system. It is shown that in general there is only a weak relationship between two-tone third-order intermodulation and adjacent-channel power ratio for the (Japanese) Personal Digital Cellular standard.

5C-047 + (203 KB)


Source Match (dB) vs. Peak-to-Peak Ripple

AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation - Engineering Department
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in July 2000.

ABSTRACT: A graph of tabular data correlating source match (dB) with peak-to-peak ripple (dB). A handy reference for determining the reliability of VNA calibrations.

5D-025 + (32 KB)


Importance of 2nd Harmonic Tuning for PA Design

AUTHORS: Gary R. Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation, Ontario, California and Michael B. Steer - Motorola RFSD, Phoenix, Arizona.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the 48th ARFTG Conference Digest; December 1996, and reprinted by permission in this format in March 2000.

ABSTRACT: Load pull measurements are widely used to determine matching impedances required for optimum power amplifier design. In the past, this has typically been done at the fundamental frequency only. However, the harmonic terminations can have a significant effect. This paper presents some typical data which indicates the importance of second harmonic tuning to the power amplifier
designer.

5C-045 + (203 KB)


1999

Theory of Load and Source Pull Measurement

AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation - Engineering Department.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in July 1999.

ABSTRACT: A brief discussion of the basics of load and source pull measurements.

5C-041 + (31 KB)


Theory of Noise Measurement

AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation - Engineering Department.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in July 1999.

ABSTRACT: A brief discussion of the basics of noise measurements.

5C-042 + (85 KB)


Theory of Intermodulation Distortion Measurement

AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation - Engineering Department.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in July 1999.

ABSTRACT: A brief discussion of the basics of Intermodulation distortion measurements.

5C-043 + (246 KB)


Tuner Repeatability: Fact and Fiction

AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation - Engineering Department.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in June 1999.

ABSTRACT: Defines repeatability and discusses the repeatability specifications role in, determining how accurately and reliably a given tuner will perform. Knowledge of a tuner worst-case total repeatability specifications for all positions (and over its full frequency range) is vital in determining how that tuner will perform.

5C-032 + (73 KB)


1998

Measurement of Large-Signal Device Input Impedance during Load Pull

AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation - Engineering Department.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in November 1998.

ABSTRACT: Describes a technique for directly measuring large-signal device input impedance on a load or source pull test while using a vector network analyzer.

5C-029 + (199 KB)


Fixture Characterization and S-Parameter Measurement Using Maury MT956D Software

AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation - Engineering Department.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in May 1998.

ABSTRACT: Explains how to expand and simplify VNA generated s-parameter measurements using an inexpensive personal computer and Maury's MT956D software package.

5C-038 + (246 KB)


Handy Microwave Equations

AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation - Engineering Department.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in January 1998.

ABSTRACT: A convenient reference sheet of equations commonly used in various microwave engineering applications. Equations shown here include Return Loss, Source Match, Peak-to-Peak Ripple in dB, Outer Conductor Diameter, Mismatch Loss, and others.

5D-003 + (33 KB)


1997

LRL Calibration of Vector Network Analyzers

AUTHORS: Mario A. Maury, Jr., Steven L. March and Gary R. Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation, Ontario, California.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in the Microwave Journal; Vol. 30, No.5 - May 1987. Reprinted by permission, with revisions in November 1997.

ABSTRACT: Compares certain vector network analyzer calibration methods: OSL (open-short-load), TSD (thru-short-delay), TRL (thru-reflect-line).

5A-017 + (302 KB)


VSWR vs. Return Loss

AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation - Engineering Department.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in July 1997.

ABSTRACT: A two-page table that shows return loss associated with various VSWR values.

5D-011 + (20 KB)


Frequency-to-Wavelength Conversion Nomograph

AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation - Engineering Department.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in July 1997.

ABSTRACT: A convenient reference for converting frequency to wavelength in nomograph format.

5D-015 + (33 KB)


Data-based Load Pull Simulations for Large-Signal Transistor Model Validation

AUTHORS: John F. Sevic - QUALCOMM, Incorporated, San Diego, California; Chuck McGuire - Hewlett-Packard Company, Westlake Village, California; Gary R. Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation, Ontario, California; Jaime Pla - Motorola Incorporated, Phoenix, Arizona.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in Microwave Journal; Vol. 40, No. 3 - March 1997; republished in this format with permission in June 1997.

ABSTRACT: A new method for large-signal transistor model validation is described. Previous methods of large-signal model validation were performed without incorporating the effect of harmonic termination. The proposed method couples a harmonic-balance engine with measured automated load-pull system S-parameter data at fundamental and harmonic frequencies. The load states are synchronized properly so that the transistor model is loaded in the simulation exactly as it is during load-pull characterization. Measured vs. simulated results for a 1mm GaAs MESFET at 2 GHz are presented.

5A-027 + (213 KB)


1991

Applications of Maury Noise Calibrations

AUTHOR: Maury Microwave Corporation - Engineering Department.
PUBLICATION HISTORY: First published in February 1991.

ABSTRACT: Details the use of Maury noise calibration systems as highly accurate and reliable sources of RF and microwave noise, and as calibration standards for other noise generators.

5C-028 + (2.3 MB)

Technical Presentations Archives

2010

An Introduction To Gallium Nitride (GaN) Device Characterization
Presented by Steve Dudkiewicz - Maury Microwave Corporation
Presented at the IMS2010 Exhibition as one of the Microwave Application Seminars.
26 May 2010
Download This Presentation ( PDF from the PowerPoint Slide show - 4.31 MB)

High Power Load Pull with X-Parameters - A New Paradigm for Modeling and Design
Presented by Gary Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation
Presented at the IMS2010 Exhibition as one of the Microwave Application Seminars.
26 May 2010
Download This Presentation ( PDF from the Powerpoint Slide show - 2.1 MB)

Mobile Phone Testing Using Impedance Tuner
Presented by Roman Meierer and Steve Dudkiewicz - Maury Microwave Corporation
Presented at the IMS2010 Exhibition as one of the Microwave Application Seminars.
27 May 2010
Download This Presentation ( PDF from the PowerPoint Slide show - 3.09 MB)

Ultra-Fast Noise Parameter Measurements - 100x Faster and More Accurate
Presented by Gary Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation
First presented at the IMS2010 Exhibition as one of the Microwave Application Seminars.
27 May 2010
Download This Presentation ( PDF from the Powerpoint Slide show - 304 KB)

Coaxial Measurements - Common Mistakes and Simple Solutions
Presented by Sathya Padmanabhan and Rocky Teresa - Maury Microwave Corporation
Presented at the IMS2010 Exhibition as one of the Microwave Application Seminars.
27 May 2010
Download This Presentation ( PDF from the PowerPoint Slide show - 4.05 MB)

2009

Connectors - Precision or Not?
Presented by Sathya Padmanabhan - Maury Microwave Corporation
First presented at the IMS2009 Exhibition as one of the Microwave Application Seminars.
07 June 2009
Download This Presentation ( PDF from the PowerPoint Slide show - 6.98 MB)

Click Here to view this Presentation with Audio from the IMS2009 Microwave Applications Seminar

Load Pull with X-Parameters - A New Paradigm for Modeling and Design
Presented by Gary Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation
First presented at the IMS2009 Exhibition as one of the Microwave Application Seminars.
08 June 2009
Download This Presentation ( PDF from the PowerPoint Slide show - 509.8 KB)

Click Here to view this Presentation with Audio from the IMS2009 Microwave Applications Seminar

Ultra-Fast Noise Parameter Measurements More than 100x Faster Enhanced Accuracy
Presented by Gary Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation
First presented at the IMS2009 Exhibition as one of the Microwave Application Seminars.
08 June 2009
Download This Presentation ( PDF from the PowerPoint Slide show - 222.7 KB)

Multi-Frequency Tuning Using Cascaded Mechanical Tuners
Presented by Roman Meierer and Gary Simpson - Maury Microwave Corporation
First presented at the IMS2009 Exhibition as one of the Microwave Application Seminars.
08 June 2009
Download This Presentation ( PDF from the PowerPoint Slide show - 1.12 MB)

Click Here to view this Presentation with Audio from the IMS2009 Microwave Applications Seminar

Primary Noise Calibration Systems (DC-110 GHz) - Accuracy and Advantages
Presented by Sathya Padmanabhan - Maury Microwave Corporation
First presented at the IMS2009 Exhibition as one of the Microwave Application Seminars.
08 June 2009
Download This Presentation ( PDF from the PowerPoint Slide show - 415 KB)

Click Here to view this Presentation with Audio from the IMS2009 Microwave Applications Seminar

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